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Table of Contents
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 5  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 89-95

Evaluation of herbicidal properties of Mikania (Mikania Micrantha H.B.K) and rain tree (Samanea Saman Jacq Merr) leaf extract


1 Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Patuakhali Science and Technology University, Dumki, Patuakhali, Bangladesh
2 Department of Food Technology and Engineering, Patuakhali Science and Technology University, Dumki, Patuakhali, Bangladesh
3 Department of Plant Pathology, Patuakhali Science and Technology University, Dumki, Patuakhali, Bangladesh

Date of Submission11-Feb-2022
Date of Acceptance14-Feb-2022
Date of Web Publication20-Apr-2022

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Md Shariful Islam
Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Patuakhali Science and Technology University, Dumki, Patuakhali-8602
Bangladesh
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/mtsp.mtsp_2_22

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  Abstract 


Background: Uses of synthetic herbicides to control weeds have negative impacts on soil health. But botanical herbicides have little or no impacts on soil health in addition to control weeds. Aim and Objectives: The aim of the research is to develop botanical herbicides for controlling selected weeds. A pot experiment has been done to evaluate the herbicidal properties of fresh Mikania micrantha H. B. K and Samanea saman Jacq. Merr. leaf extract on two commonly grown weeds Physalis heterophylla and Chenopodium album. Four weed seedlings were transplanted in each pot and three replications were maintained for pots and twelve for each weed. Eighty percentage methanolic extract (1:1) of M. micrantha and S. saman were applied at 0, 10, and 15 mL per pot after 35 days of transplanting. Materials and Methods: Data were collected for agronomic parameters, chlorophyll contents, weed control efficiency by number and weight, and pH and Electrical conductivity (EC) of postharvest soils. About 92% C. album by number was controlled by application of 10 mL M. micrantha extract and which was 36% by weight. Maximum 58% C. album and P. heterophylla by number and 12%–16% by weight was controlled by application of 15 mL S. saman leaf extract. Chlorophyll contents (a+b) were significantly decreases in treated leaves compared to control as these plant extract causes chlorosis of weed leaves. Results: Hence, number of yellow leaves significantly increases and green leaves decreases in treated leaves. pH (7.08–7.34) and EC (0.62–0.89 dS m-1) of postharvest soil indicated that these values were not significantly change after and before application of herbicidal extract and thus no adverse effect was found on soil environment. Conclusion: Considering the weed control efficiency, it is concluded that M. micrantha leaf extract has high potentiality as botanical herbicide to control both C. album and P. heterophylla.

Keywords: Botanical herbicide, weed, weed control efficiency


How to cite this article:
Islam MS, Khatun M, Uddin MN, Rahman MS, Ashraful Islam SM, Saifullah MK. Evaluation of herbicidal properties of Mikania (Mikania Micrantha H.B.K) and rain tree (Samanea Saman Jacq Merr) leaf extract. Matrix Sci Pharma 2021;5:89-95

How to cite this URL:
Islam MS, Khatun M, Uddin MN, Rahman MS, Ashraful Islam SM, Saifullah MK. Evaluation of herbicidal properties of Mikania (Mikania Micrantha H.B.K) and rain tree (Samanea Saman Jacq Merr) leaf extract. Matrix Sci Pharma [serial online] 2021 [cited 2022 Jun 26];5:89-95. Available from: https://www.matrixscipharma.org/text.asp?2021/5/4/89/343599




  Introduction Top


Weeds cause tremendous loss in crop yield and quality. In crop fields, weeds are one of the main pests reducing crop yield from 15% to 96%.[1] In Bangladesh, weeds in crop fields are mainly controlled using labor. However, scarcity of agricultural laborers increases due to rapid industrialization. Hence, it is necessary to find out alternative ways to control weeds. One alternative is to use chemical herbicides which give rise to environmental hazards. Another option is to use of instrument to uproot weeds, but this is also difficult due to small size of land to apply different farm mechanization technology. Botanical herbicides have also been found to control weeds through utilizing the allelopathic potentials of these materials.[2] These natural botanical herbicides are friendly both to environment and human health and also less costly due to the availability of raw materials. There are some plant extracts were examined as botanical fungicides and/or pesticides such as mehagoni leaf, seed, pitraj seed, neem, tobacco, bishkataly, ginger, and garlic.[3],[4] If such type of botanical herbicides could be innovated, these would help to not only control the weeds but also improve soil physical properties after its proper decomposition along with maintain the environmental sustainability.

Rain tree (Samanea saman Jacq. Merr.) and herbaceous vine known as Mikania (Mikania micrantha H. B. K.) are commonly grown in Bangladesh. These plants can grow vigorously in adverse environment. Rain tree leaf and bark extract is used traditionally in diarrhea, intestinal diseases, stomach ache, colds, and headache.[5] The leaves were reported to contain tannins, flavonoids, steroids, saponins, cardiac glycosides, and terpenoids.[5] The leaves possess antimicrobial activity and the plant is also reported to have anticancer property.[6] A previous study examined by applying Mikania vine beneath the soil and it can significantly reduce the Cyperous weeds over control treatment. These plants have low phytotoxicity to specific crop plants.[7],[8],[9] The latest research has reported that seed germination, radical elongation, and biomass production of Lycopersicon esculentum and Brassica chinensis were inhibited by aqueous extract of Mikania, but Zea mays and Vigna sesquipedelis seedlings were not affected.[10] The leaf leachate of Rain tree was applied to seed at germination stage of Brassica campestris, Amaranthus viridis, and Oryza sativa and found the inhibitory effect on Brassica campestris and Amaranthus viridis, while rice plant (Oryza sativa) is opposed to the effect of leaf leachate.[11],[12] So, we hypothesized that these plants contain allelopathic compounds and have potential herbicidal properties, which can be used as selective organic herbicides. So we hypothesized that these plants contain allelopathic compounds and have potential herbicidal properties which can be used as selective organic herbicides. So, it is essential to find out responsive weeds to Mikania and Rain tree leaf extract application. The proposed research was conducted to examine the potentiality of botanical herbicide through organic extraction from Mikania (Mikania micrantha H.B.K.) and rain tree (Samanea saman Jacq. Merr.) leaves on two commonly grown weeds in rice and maize field, namely, Foska begun (English name: Clammy ground cherry, Scientific name: Physalis heterophylla, Family: Solanaceae) and Bathua (English name: Lamb's quarter, Scientific name: Chenopodium album, Family: Amaranthaceae).


  Methodology Top


Pot preparation

Soil was collected from the Patuakhali Science and Technology University (PSTU) Farm and air dried. All kinds of dirts, trash, and plant parts were removed. Then, it was grinned and sieved carefully. After sieving, 10 kg of this soil was filled in a series of plastic pot (0.25 m2) and labeled properly.

Weed collection and cultivation

The two most commonly grown weeds in Bangladesh, namely, Foska begun (Physalis heterophylla) and Bathua (Chenopodium album) seedlings, were also collected from the PSTU farm area with similar size and age. Each of four seedlings was transplanted in previously prepared pot. After transplanting, the pots were watered to assure field capacity and put in a net house, Department of Agricultural Chemistry, PSTU, Dumki, Patuakhali.

Mikania and rain tree leaf extract preparation

Fresh Mikania (Mikania micrantha H. B. K.) and rain tree (Samanea saman Jacq. Merr.) leaves were collected and washed with distilled water and then air-dried. The air-dried leaves were macerated and making paste by mixing 80% methanol (1:1) using a grinder machine at room temperature. Then, the extracts were centrifuged at 7000 rpm for 3 min in a centrifuge machine. The supernatant were used as botanical herbicides to control the Foska begun and Bathua. Freshly prepared extracts were used for the treatments.

Treatments

After 35 days of transplanting, the extract was sprayed in the morning (at 8:30 am) at 0 (control), 10, and 15 mL in each pot. Three replications were maintained for pots and twelve for each weed. The experiment was arranged following completely randomized design.

Data collection and postharvest soil sampling

Three days after spraying, living plants and dead plants number and numbers of total leaves along with green and yellow leaves were counted for each plant and per pot. Some fresh leaves were collected from each pot for chlorophyll a and b analysis. After harvesting, all plants were dried and dry weight per pot was recorded. The postharvest soil sampling was done and processed to determine pH and electrical conductivity (EC).

Weed control efficiency

Weed control efficiency of these extracts was determined in terms of both number and by weight using the following formula.[9],[13],[14]

Weed control efficiency by weight (%) = ([Dry weight of weeds in untreated pot – dry weight of weeds in treated pots]/dry weight of weeds in untreated pot) × 100 ……….(i)

Weed control efficiency by number (%) = ([Number of living weeds in untreated pot – number of living weeds in treated pots]/Total number of weeds in untreated pot) × 100 ……….(ii)

Chemical analysis

pH and EC of soil (1:2.5 = soil: water for pH and 1:5 = soil: water for EC) samples were determined with a glass electrode pH meter (pH Meter, Hanna) and conductivity meter (EC Meter, Hanna), respectively.[15],[16]

Leaf sampling was done from each pot after 3 days of spraying and immediately used for the estimation of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b contents. Chlorophyll concentrations in leaves were extracted using 80% chilled acetone; contents of these were estimated with the help of a UV-VIS spectrophotometer using the following equation given.[17]

Chlorophyll a = 12.21A663-2.81A646 ……….(iii)

Chlorophyll b = 20.13A646-5.03A663 ……….(iv)

Statistical analysis

The data were statistically analyzed. Results were expressed as the means ± standard error of means of three replicates for pots and twelve for plants. Significance degree was calculated using a t-test and curve fitting was done using the computer package Microsoft Excel program (Microsoft Office 2007 Professional).


  Results Top


Effect of Mikania (Mikania micrantha H. B. K) and rain tree (Samanea saman Jacq. Merr.) leaf extract on agronomic parameters of Foska begun (Physalis heterophylla) weed

Numbers of Foska begun dead plants were increased with the increasing of Mikania and rain tree leaf extract [Table 1]. The highest numbers (3.67 ± 0.33 out of 4.0 ± 0.00) of Foska begun dead plants were found at 15 mL Mikania leaf extract treatment and the lowest (1.67 ± 0.33 out of 4.0 ± 0.00) was found at 10 mL rain tree leaf extract treatment, while no weed was died at control (0). The numbers of yellow leaves significantly (P < 0.01, 0.005) increased and inversely green leaves decreased within 3 days of application of Mikania and rain tree leaf extract at an increasing rate [Table 1].
Table 1: Number of living and dead plants, green and yellow leaves, and dry weight of Foska begun (Physalis heterophylla) weed after spraying of different doses of Mikania (Mikania micrantha H.B.K) and Rain tree (Samanea saman Jacq. Merr.) leaf extract at 40 days after transplanting transplanting [data indicates mean (n=12) ± SEM; ** and *denotes significant difference at P<0.001 and 0.05, respectively, among the treatments compare to the respective control]

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Effect of Mikania (Mikania micrantha H. B. K) and rain tree (Samanea saman Jacq. Merr.) leaf extract on agronomic parameters of Bathua (Chenopodium album) weed

The distinct effect of Mikania leaf extract was found on Bathua weed. The maximum and same number (3.67 ± 0.33) of Bathua weed was died at both 10 and 15 mL of Mikania extract application [Table 2].
Table 2: Number of living and dead plants, green and yellow leaves, and dry weight of Bathua (Chenopodium album) weed after spraying of different doses of Mikania (Mikania micrantha H.B.K) and Rain tree (Samanea saman Jacq. Merr.) leaf extract at 40 days after transplanting [data indicates mean (n=12) ± SEM, ** and *denotes significant difference at P<0.001 and 0.05, respectively, among the treatments compare to the respective control]

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Rain tree leaf extract has lower effects on Bathua compared to Mikania extract. There was a strong significant (P < 0.01) relation between the treated and untreated (control) Bathu leaves in respect to yellowing and greening condition. The maximum number of yellow leaves (117.67) was found at 15 mL Mikania extract application, whereas the lowest (7.33) was found in control (0) treatment. The increasing number of yellow leaves and the decreasing of green leaves were also found with increasing of rain tree leaf extract application [Table 2]. Mikania leaf extract has a strong phytotoxic effect on Bathau weed.

Impact of Mikania (Mikania micrantha H. B. K) leaf extract on dry weight of Foska begun (Physalis heterophylla) and Bathua (Chenopodium album) weeds

Data illustrated in [Figure 1] explained that Mikania extract significantly reduced the dry weight of Foska begun (P < 0.05) and Bathua (P < 0.01) weed compared to control treatment. There was a strong correlation between yellow leaves and dry weight. After application of Mikania extract, yellow leaves become fall down and weeds were died and hence dry weight was significantly reduced [Table 1] and [Table 2].
Figure 1: Dry weight (g pot‒1) of Foska begun (Physalis heterophylla) and Bathua (Chenopodium album) weed after spraying of different doses of Mikania (Mikania micrantha H. B. K) leaf extract at 40 days after transplanting (Error bar indicates mean [n = 3] ± standard error of means; ** and *denotes significant difference at P < 0.001 and 0.05, respectively, among the treatments compare to the respective control [0])

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Impact of rain tree (Samanea saman Jacq. Merr.) leaf extract on dry weight of Foska begun (Physalis heterophylla) and Bathua (Chenopodium album) weeds

Dry weight data of Foska begun and Bathua weeds were also collected after application of rain tree leaf extract and presented in [Figure 2]. Although there was no statistically significant change of dry weight after application of rain tree leaf extract, it was lower than the control treatment. The dry weight become decreases with increasing the rate of rain tree leaf extract application on both weeds [Table 1] and [Table 2]
Figure 2: Dry weight (g pot‒1) of Foska begun (Physalis heterophylla) and Bathua (Chenopodium album) weed after spraying of different doses of Rain tree (Samanea saman Jacq. Merr.) leaf extract at 40 days after transplanting (Error bar indicates mean [n = 3] ± standard error of means)

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Chlorophyll contents of Foska begun (Physalis heterophylla) and Bathua (Chenopodium album) leaves after application of Mikania (Mikania micrantha H. B. K) and rain tree (Samanea saman Jacq. Merr.) leaf extract

Chlorophyll is essential for photosynthesis and two types of chlorophyll are exist in the photosystem of green plant, namely, chlorophyll a and b.[18] Hence, both chlorophyll a and b for all treated and nontreated weed leaves were determined and the data are depicted in [Figure 3] and [Figure 4].
Figure 3: Chlorophyll (a + b) content (mg g‒1 fresh weight) of Foska begun (Physalis heterophylla) and Bathua (Chenopodium album) weed after spraying of different doses of Mikania (Mikania micrantha H. B. K) leaf extract at 40 days after transplanting (Error bar indicates mean [n = 3] ± standard error of means; ** and *denotes significant difference at P < 0.001 and 0.05, respectively, among the treatments compare to the respective control [0])

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Figure 4: Chlorophyll (a + b) content (mg g‒1 fresh weight) of Foska begun (Physalis heterophylla) and Bathua (Chenopodium album) weed after spraying of different doses of Rain tree (Samanea saman Jacq. Merr.) leaf extract at 40 days after transplanting (Error bar indicates mean [n = 3] ± standard error of means; ** and *denotes significant difference at P < 0.001 and 0.05, respectively, among the treatments compare to the respective control [0])

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Chlorophyll (a + b) were significantly (P < 0.01, 0.005) decreased in treated leaves compared to control. The lowest amount (0.26 mg g‒1) of chlorophyll (a + b) was found in 15 mL Mikania leaf extract application to Foska begun. The degree of reduction of chlorophyll was higher in Mikania treated both Foska begun and Bathua leaves compared to rain tree leaves [Table 3] and [Table 4]. The chlorophyll content was decreased due to the increasing of yellowing of leaves after application of both Mikania and rain tree leaf extract [Table 1] and [Table 2].
Table 3: Chlorophyll a + b contents (mg/g fresh weight), control efficiency (by number and weight (%)) of Foska begun (Physalis heterophylla) weed after spraying of different doses of Mikania (Mikania micrantha H.B.K) and Rain tree (Samanea saman Jacq. Merr.) leaf extract at 40 days after transplanting

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Table 4: Chlorophyll a + b contents (mg/g fresh weight), control efficiency (by number and weight (%)) of Bathua (Chenopodium album) weed after spraying of different doses of Mikania (Mikania micrantha H.B.K) and Rain tree (Samanea saman Jacq. Merr.) leaf extract at 40 days after transplanting

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Foska begun (physalis heterophylla) and Bathua (Chenopodium album) weeds control efficiency

Mikania and rain tree leaf extract application increased weed control efficiency both by number and weight of Foska begun and Bathua over the control [Table 3] and [Table 4]. Mikania extract has excellent Bathua control efficiency compared to Foska begun and rain tree leaf extract application. About 92% Bathua by number was efficiently controlled by application of 10 mL Mikania extract and which was 36% by weight [Table 4]. Maximum 58% Bathua and Foska begun by number and 12%–16% by weight was controlled by application of 15 mL Rain tree leaf extract [Table 3] and [Table 4]. Foska begun control efficiency was increased with the progressive rate of Mikania application from 83% to 91.67% (by number) and 27.41 to 31.27% (by weight, [Table 3]), whereas almost similar result was found at both doses (10 mL and 15 mL) for Bathua weed [Table 4]. Bathua weed is sensitive to methanolic extract of Mikania leaf at 10 mL application but after that if spraying rate is increased from 10 to 15 mL, no significant change was found in weed control efficiency.

pH and electrical conductivity of postharvest soil

pH and EC of post-harvest soils were determined and the data are tabulated in [Table 5] to examine whether any change of soil pH and EC was happened after application of both Mikania and rain tree leaf extract. pH and EC data pointed out that the both Mikania and rain tree leaf extract have no adverse effect on soil environment. pH of post harvest soil was ranged from 7.04 to 7.44 indicated that the soil were in neutral condition which was similar to initial soil (pH 7.08 to 7.34, data not shown here) and no structural change was occurred. EC value ranges from 0.62 to 0.89 dS m-1 in post harvest soil [Table 5] specified that soil were in non-saline condition and almost similar to initial soil (0.54 to 0.79 dS m-1, data not shown here).
Table 5: pH and electrical conductivity (electrical conductivity, dS/m) of Foska begun (Physalis heterophylla) and Bathua (Chenopodium album) cultivated postharvest soil after spraying of different doses of Mikania (Mikania micrantha H.B.K) and Rain tree (Samanea saman Jacq. Merr.) leaf extract at 40 days after transplanting

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  Discussion Top


Mikania leaf has mikanolide,[19] deoxymekanolide, caffeic acid, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, resorcinol, and vanilic acid allelochemicals, which have strong phytotoxicity and hence enhancing the yellowing of Foska begun (Physalis heterophylla) and Bathua (Chenopodium album) leaves and plants become died [Table 1] and [Table 2].[10],[20],[21] Due to presence of different allelopathic chemicals especially mikanolide [Figure 5], it is rapidly develop cytotoxicity and chlorosis is occurred in both weed leaves which is supported by chlorophyll data presented in [Figure 3] and [Figure 4]. Chlorophyll contents were significantly decreased in treated weed leaves compared to control (0). M. micrantha leaf extract can control 92% Bathua and Foska begun by number, might be due to the presence of strong bioactive compounds, mikanolide. It has the highest potentiality to use as botanical herbicides to control these weeds. A previous research was applied the 1-5 cm pieces of M. micrantha 5 cm below the soil and then Cyperous weed were cultivated on this soil.[9] They also found that M. micrantha application increased the weed control efficiency at 14.45%–56.32% by number over the control. Here, in this experiment, direct organic extract was sprayed to leaves and which can be more efficient to control weed than the soil application.
Figure 5: Chemical structure of bioactive compounds Mikanodile present in Mikania (Mikania micrantha H. B. K) leaves extract[19]

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Rain tree leaves extract has also been reported for different insecticidal, cytotoxic, and allelopathic activity.[22] Here methanolic extract is used as botanical herbicides for controlling Foska begun and Bathua and found that it can controlled 41-58% by number and 11-16% by weight of these two weed species [Table 3] and [Table 4]. A recent study has isolated two macrocyclic spermine alkaloids: Pithecolobine-1 and 2 [Figure 6] from 80% methanolic extract of S. saman leaves and clarified by spectral analysis.[22],[23] These two compounds were reported to exhibit good cytotoxic activity, and the range of concentration is 0.019–0.625 mg/mL. The current study used 10–15 mL doses for controlling weeds and this amount also significantly decreases the chlorophyll contents in leaves and reduces the dry weight [Figure 3] and [Figure 4]. Previously it was clearly indicated the cytotoxicity occurred at 757.3672μg/mL of methanol extract in brine shrimp bioassay, with the LD50 value of 757.3672μg/mL.[24] Although weed control efficiency of rain tree leaf extract was not strong enough like Mikania, it still has potentiality to use as herbicides at high doses.
Figure 6: Chemical structure of bioactive compounds Pithecolobine-1 and Pithecolobine-2 present in Rain tree (Samanea saman Jacq. Merr.) leaves[22],[23]

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  Conclusions Top


M. micrantha leaf extract has high potentiality to control both C. album and P. heterophylla over S. saman leaf extract. From this study, it is revealed that M. micrantha leaf extract can reduce the total number of P. heterophylla and C. album weed at lower doses. Further field-based research should be conducted to other weed species and crops involving the M. micrantha and S. saman leaf extract application and monitoring the population density of both crops and weeds.

Acknowledgments

The authors sincerely thank the Ministry of Science and Technology (Most), Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh, and Research and Training Center, Patuakhali Science and Technology University for financial support under special allocation to conduct this research work.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
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    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5]



 

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