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   Table of Contents - Current issue
April-June 2021
Volume 5 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 19-47

Online since Tuesday, October 5, 2021

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Antihypertensives and COVID-19: A narrative review p. 19
Vrushali Ramdas Khobragade, Prashanth Yachrappa Vishwakarma, Arun Suresh Dodamani, Minal Madhukar Kshirsagar, Sulakshana Navindrabhau Raut, Rahul Nivrutti Deokar
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): A plague which has impacted health and economy worldwide on an exceptional scale. Patients have diverse clinical outcomes, but those with preexisting cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and related conditions sustain strangely worse outcome. Hypertension is a significant risk factor of mortality worldwide and it has been focused more nowadays because of its association with novel coronavirus 2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 [SARS-CoV-2]) infection mentioned as COVID-19. Patients showing severe COVID-19 infections mostly seen to be older and had a history of hypertension. Most of the patients who have died within the pandemic were known cases of hypertension. This article demonstrates the relation between angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and COVID-19 with its possible mechanisms. Hence, with this review, we have raised multiple questions regarding a more severe course of COVID-19 in regard to hypertension itself and thus the antihypertensives used. With the data available, it is quite clear that the infection is understood to be caused by the SARS-CoV-2 and is responsible for human-to-human transmission of disease, entering the cells through its predicated receptor ACE2.
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Possible pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatments for diabetic polyneuropathy p. 23
Sidra Munir
Objective: Diabetic neuropathy (DN) is a microvascular complication of diabetes that arises due to damage to nerves. It arises due to hyperglycemia and the pathways that it follows are most commonly initiated by reactive oxygen species-induced oxidative stress. Methodology: There are various growth factors and receptors involved in the process, and the usual understanding of its origin is rather unclear. Until now, no absolute cure exists for the treatment of DN; however, there are a lot of pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatment options that are recommended and can help to ease the pain associated with DN. This paper reviews these options that are divided into broad categories of pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatment options. Results: The pharmacological treatment options include the use of natural plants with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential, thymosin, Pregabalin, duloxetine, anticonvulsants, and antinociceptive agents. Conclusions: Whereas, the nonpharmacological treatments suggest the surgery, supplements, acupuncture, exercises such as yoga, and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation therapy. Both of these can help patients, especially if consider collectively.
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Abuse and misuse of tramadol among the youth in hodan district mogadishu somalia p. 36
Abdikadir Ahmed Omar, Hassan Mohamed Ahmed
Objectives: Tramadol is a synthetic (man-made) pain reliever (analgesic). Researchers and doctors do not know the exact mechanism of action of tramadol, but it is similar to morphine. The objective of the study was is to assess the knowledge and contact traces of tramadol in Hodan district Mogadishu Somalia. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was adopted using structured questionnaire as the major instrument for the collection of data- this was both closed and open-ended. Methodology: A sample size of 130 respondents was used through the use of simple random sampling technique. Quantitative data analysis methods were used with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21.0 in the analysis of the data. Results: The study found that majority (70%) of respondents knew about tramadol of which more happened to be males. The study found that participants take higher doses of tramadol. The study found that preponderance (58.5%) of respondents knew people who use tramadol of which majority were their friends and co-workers. It also turned out that (83.1%) of the respondents knew where tramadol is readily available. Conclusions: In determining the main purpose of tramadol as energy booster, (30%) attested sexual ecstasy and performance. In conclusion, the availability of tramadol in our Somali community should be highly regulated since its abuse among the youth is on the ascendency. It is a real issue that should be tackled with concerted effort to curtail this menace most especially in the Hodan district.
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Bioactivities of Isolated Phytochemicals and Extracts of Abies spectabilis (D.Don) Mirb. p. 42
Vivek Saravanan
Objectives: Abies spectabilis (D.Don) Mirb. belongs to the Pinaceae family. A. spectabilis is used for construction, fragrance, fuel, and medicine. In traditional medicine, this plant is used to cure several disorders such as asthma, cold, cough, tumor, vomiting. This work projects to explore the potential medicinal uses and phytochemical constituents of A. spectabilis. Materials and Methods: The compounds such as abiesin, betuloside, limonene, α-pinene, abiesadine, and myricetin have been discovered from different parts of this plant. The major electronic databases (Web of Science, PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Scopus) were applied to recognize the appropriate published studies from 1900 to June 2021. Results: Up to now, except for clinical studies, in vitro and in vitro scientific evidence are available for different extracts. Conclusion: The investigations were undertaken exhibit the potential use of this plant for various pharmacological purposes such as antianxiety, antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, antifungal, antiplatelet, antispasmodic. This work will support different researchers on pharmacological and phytochemical aspects in the future.
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