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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Study on the difference of weight reduction effect between high-intensity interval training and persistent aerobic exercise for female college students
Y Zhang, LL Sun
July-December 2019, 3(2):38-40
DOI:10.4103/MTSP.MTSP_6_19  
Objectives: The aim was to study the effect of persistent aerobic exercise and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on weight loss of female students. Methods: Seventy-two college students were selected as the research subjects, and they were randomly divided into the control group and the observation group. Thirty-six cases in the control group were doing the persistent aerobic exercise and 36 in the observation group were using the HIIT weight loss method. The waist-to-hip ratio, body weight, and body fat were observed and recorded in two groups. Results: The waist-to-hip ratio of female students in the control group was significantly lower than that in the observation group, and the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The weight loss rate of female college students in the observation group was significantly higher than that in the control group, and the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The changes in body fat in female college students in the control group were significantly greater than those in the control group, and the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Compared with the continuous aerobic exercise method, the HIIT weight-loss method has a more significant effect on female college students' weight loss and has a certain safety.
  3,206 259 1
Anti-fungal study on aqueous and ethanolic leaves extracts of Piper sarmentosum
Maizatul Akma Ibrahim, Aiesyaa Majdiena Emlee
January-June 2020, 4(1):13-17
DOI:10.4103/MTSP.MTSP_3_20  
Background: Piper sarmentosum or “Kaduk” had been utilized for treating human diseases in traditional medicine. Aim and Objectives: Previous studies provided evidence for its therapeutic properties such as antimicrobials, anticholesterolemic, and antioxidant. An antifungal agent is highly important to cure diseases caused by pathogenic fungi. Materials and Method: Thus, the aim of this study is to discover the antifungals activity of P.sarmentosum leaves& aqueous and ethanolic extracts against four pathogenic fungi, namely Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium verticillioides, and Microsporum gypseum. Result: The yield percentage of the aqueous extract was 17.72%, followed by ethanolic extract with 11.95% of yield. Phytochemical analysis by gas chromatography–mass spectrometer showed the presence of acetic acid, hydrocinnamic acid, oxazole, guanidine, pyranone, benzofuran, β-asarone, and 1-pentadecene in aqueous extracts, while it showed the presence of β-asarone, β-asarone, myristicin, apiol, isocaryophyllene, 1,1-dichlorocyclopentane, and 14-chloro-1-tetradecanol in ethanolic extract. Conclusion: The antifungal susceptibility by disc-diffusion test found that the inhibition growth on F.verticillioides by the aqueous extract occurred at a concentration of 100 mg/mL with an average diameter of 7.3 mm ± 0.06. C. albicans, A. niger, and M. gypseum were shown to be insusceptible to both the extracts.
  2,655 334 1
Highlighting the nutritional and medicinal value of Asparagus along with its cultivation practices
Sandesh Thapa, Sara Rawal, Sarika Bist
January-June 2020, 4(1):18-21
DOI:10.4103/MTSP.MTSP_4_20  
Background: Asparagus officinalis L commonly known as kurilo was profound to carry nutritional, medicinal, and economical aspects. Despite its enormous development in the world context, Nepal was still found lagging behind its existence. Aims and Objectives: A study shows that Asparagus was not any new plant to Nepalese, it grew well in the subtropical vegetation of the hilly and Terai regions of our country through its length and breadth naturally, but its importance was still undervalued. Materials and Methods: Comprising about 300 species including both wild and edible species, Asparagus is a plant of marine habitats owing a very modified shoot system that primarily adapts itself for various purposes of a plant to survive such as climbing, protection, adaptation in arid habitat, and many more. Furthermore, the review dealt with the cultivation practices which, in turn, highlighted the virtue of its methods that should be included for getting Asparagus more and more economically excellent. Results: Study and data accounted acknowledged that Asparagus farming is not getting the kind of attention, techniques, and interest of people that it needs to get. Conclusions: The wild free species growing randomly in the deep woods of our forest is the ground for the possible prospects of Asparagus farming which indicates its immense future only if manipulated correctly
  2,742 243 2
Assessment of nutritional status of under 5-year-old children in Banadir Hospital, Mogadishu, Somalia
Abdikadir Ahmed Omar, Nadira Mehriban
July-December 2019, 3(2):32-37
DOI:10.4103/MTSP.MTSP_12_19  
Background: Nutritional status of children is a proxy indicator for assessing the entire population health status and one of the major predictors of child survival. Despite the various efforts, malnutrition among children is remaining as a major public health problem in Somalia. The study objective was to assess the nutritional status of under 5-year-old children in Banadir Hospital, Mogadishu, Somalia. Methodology: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 150 under-five children. Sociodemographic characteristic, usual dietary intake and assess adequacy, breastfeeding and complementary feeding pattern of the mothers, and anthropometric index of the children were collected by using semi-structured questionnaire. Results: Age categorized into 0–1 years old were 52.7%, 32.0% were 1–2 years old, 8.7% were 3–4 years old, and 6.7% were 4–5 years old. With mean and standard deviation of 17.44 ± 13.096, the age was the most critical variable because it was one of the scales of the Mental Adjustment to Cancer (MAC) measurements and target objective of the study. MAC test showed that 49.3% of the children were severe, 16.0% of the children were mild malnourished, and 34.7% of the children were well-nourished children. Based on height-for-age chronic malnutrition, 16.0% of the respondents were severe, 14.7% of the respondents were moderate, 24.0% of the respondents were mild, and 45.3% of the respondents were normal. According to the weight-for-height acute malnutrition, 30.7% of the respondents were severe, 19.3% of the respondents were moderate, 10.7% of the respondents were mild, and 39.3% of the respondents were normal. Conclusion: The findings showed that the nutritional status of under-five children was quite poor. Also from the results, it is evident that malnutrition is still a major public health problem among young children due to the poor socioeconomic status (poverty and poor educational background) of their parents, and thus, there is a need for better nutrition of the Somali child.
  2,716 247 1
Assessing the knowledge of private university students on self-medication practices, Malaysia
B Ganesh Pandian, P Sireesha, YP Ng, S Devan Raj, CY Law, C. E. M Patrick
July-December 2019, 3(2):27-31
DOI:10.4103/MTSP.MTSP_13_19  
Introduction: Self-medication is usually defined as an intake of any type of drugs for treatment without professional supervision to relieve an illness or a condition. College students prefer self-medication for minor illness to save time and money. The study aimed at assessing the knowledge on self-medication practice among medical and nonmedical university students. Materials and Methods: It is a prospective observational study and a total of 579 individuals were included. Study participants were selected by stratified random sampling from various faculties of a private university campus. Study population was divided into two groups as medical and nonmedical based on their faculty they belong to. A prevalidated questionnaire was used to assess the knowledge on self-medication practices. Questionnaire was distributed, and various data regarding their self-medication practice were collected and the collected data were analyzed using Chi-square test. Results: The collected data showed that the knowledge of medical students on self-medication was better than the nonmedical group, and the study participants staying at hostel use over the counter (OTC) s more than the others. Conclusion: Self-medication practice was common among the university students which show the need for education regarding the rational use of OTCs. By doing this, the drug-related problems can be avoided and OTCs can be rationally utilized.
  2,627 288 3
Study on the effect of music therapy on psychological intervention of patients after operation
RY Qin
July-December 2019, 3(2):41-43
DOI:10.4103/MTSP.MTSP_7_19  
Objectives: The objective was to explore the effect of music therapy on psychological intervention of patients after operation. Methods: The patients were divided into observation group and control group with an average of 68 patients after the outpatient operation. Routine psychological nursing was administered to the patients after operation in the control group and patients in the observation group were administered music therapy on the basis of routine psychological nursing. The psychological anxiety value of the two groups of patients was assessed by Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale. At the same time, the blood pressure, pulse, and pain of the two groups of patients were compared. Results: The blood pressure, pulse, and pain degree of the patients in the observation group were better than those in the control group. The psychological anxiety value of the two groups was statistically significantly better than that of the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Music therapy has an important influence on the psychological intervention of postoperative patients. Patients' psychological anxiety can be reduced by the use of music therapy at the same time will reduce the psychological anxiety of the patients, improve the psychological status of the patients, help the patients to maintain the stability of vital signs and help the patients recover after operation.
  2,580 296 2
Assessment of community pharmacist's knowledge and skills about appropriate inhaler technique demonstration in Khartoum locality: A cross-sectional study
Arwa Husham Omer, Bashir Alsiddig Yousef
January-June 2020, 4(1):4-8
DOI:10.4103/MTSP.MTSP_1_20  
Background: Inhalation represents the best choice of administration for the delivery of drugs to treat respiratory disorders such as asthma. Thus, the correct inhaler technique is required to ensure optimal clinical outcomes and improve the quality of life. Community pharmacists are responsible for counseling patients and their knowledge and skills of inhalers. This study aimed to assess the knowledge and skills of community pharmacists in demonstrating different inhalation device techniques in Khartoum locality. Methods: This was a cross-sectional observational study concerning Khartoum locality pharmacies using a mystery patient method. The data were collected using a checklist for each device, which was filled by the investigator after visiting the pharmacy, and then the data were analyzed descriptively using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Results: The study covered 232 pharmacies. Most of the pharmacists get the score of an adequate level of knowledge and skills; the percentage levels for each device were as 58.2%, 65.7%, and 58.8% for pressurized metered-dose inhaler (Ventolin®), dry powder inhaler (Turbuhaler™, Symbicort®), and dry powder inhaler (Diskus™, Seretide®), respectively. However, some of the pharmacists get the score of “don't know.” Although most pharmacists achieve an adequate score, they were varying in percentage when demonstrating critical steps for each device. Conclusion: The community pharmacists who are expected to educate asthmatic patients on how to deal with their inhaler's devices scored an adequate level of knowledge and skill on demonstrating different inhaler's device, so an extra effort should be made to level them up in that area through regular training programs.
  2,579 251 -
Systematic significance of the foliar trichomes in selected Melastoma L. species from Fraser Hill, Pahang
Z Siti-Maisarah, Che Nurul Aini Che Amri, S Rozilawati, MY Noor-Syaheera
January-June 2020, 4(1):9-12
DOI:10.4103/MTSP.MTSP_2_20  
Background: The foliar trichomes of five selected Melastoma L. species in Fraser Hill, Pahang, that belongs to Melastomataceae family had been studied. These five species namely Melastoma muticum Ridl., Melastoma decemfidum Roxb., Melastoma perakense Ridl., Melastoma sanguineum x malabathricum, and Melastoma malabathricum var. normale. Aims and Objectives: This study aims to investigate the systematic significance of foliar trichomes in the identification and classification of Melastoma species. Materials and Methods: Methods of investigation involved cross-section using sliding microtomes on petiole and midrib, epidermal peel, and leaf clearing and observation under a light microscope. Result: The investigation showed that the genus of Melastoma seems to have a great variation of foliar trichomes. This present study has reported nonglandular trichomes in all species studied. However, six types of trichomes were discovered which serve as distinct variations of taxonomic values, such as simple multiseriate (short, pointed end), simple multiseriate (long, pointed end), simple multiseriate (short, hooked end), simple multiseriate (long, hooked end), strigose–setose, and scales trichomes. Surprisingly, the presence of simple multiseriate (long, hooked end) trichome only in M. muticum could be a criterion to diagnose the species. Conclusion: In conclusion, the present study revealed that the foliar trichomes possess as systematic significance in the identification and classification of Melastoma either at genus or species level.
  2,613 209 -
Research on the influence mechanism of winter swimming exercise on the cardiovascular system in the middle-aged and elderly
F Wang, SS Li
January-June 2019, 3(1):12-15
DOI:10.4103/MTSP.MTSP_4_19  
Objectives: The aim of the study is to investigate the effect of winter swimming on cardiovascular function in the middle-aged and elderly men. Methods: Thirty cases were included in the control group and seventy cases were in the winter swimming group. The control group and swimming group were 60–69 years of age in the elderly. The winter swimming group was followed for 1 year and the control group carried out an index test the same year. Four items of blood lipid, electrocardiogram, and cardiac function parameters were selected as index. Results: The high-density lipoprotein cholesterol of the winter swimming group was significantly higher than that of the control group (P < 0.05), but there was no significant difference in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglyceride (P > 0.05); the comparison of serum cytokines were weak but in a positive direction. Conclusions: Long-term insist to winter swimming can make the heart to adapt to the morphological changes, improve cardiac function, improve myocardial blood supply, improve blood lipid metabolism, and reduce the risk of Arsenic (AS).
  2,565 217 2
Effects of yoga exercise on body shape and cardiovascular function of female college students
XC Zhang
January-June 2019, 3(1):1-4
DOI:10.4103/MTSP.MTSP_1_19  
Objectives: The objective is to explore effects of yoga exercise on body shape and cardiovascular function of female college students. Methods: One hundred and twenty female college students were selected as the study participants, and they were randomly divided into observation group and control group, with 60 participants in each group. The control group of female college students has routine life and learning, while the observation group of college students has an 18-week yoga practice. The exercise frequency is three times a week, 90 min/times, between 50VO2 max and 60VO2 max, mainly including preparation activities, pose exercises, and relaxation exercises after the end. Moreover, the physical form index of two groups of female students was compared. Results: The body mass index, LIVI, WHR, VEK, HR, SV, SI, CI, VPELs, MSP, MDP, AC, ETK, and STR of the observation group female college students were significantly better than those in the control group. The difference between the two groups was significant, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusions: By means of yoga practice, the physical form of female college students can be obviously improved, and the function of losing weight can be achieved. It can also improve the cardiovascular function of female college students, and the effect of exercise is very remarkable.
  2,429 255 1
Research on the role of toll-like receptor 2 and toll-like receptor 4 and its signal pathway in the pathogenesis of primary gout arthritis
RJ Cui, M Li, G Tuerxun, Y Li, SS Xie
January-June 2020, 4(1):1-3
DOI:10.4103/MTSP.MTSP_5_19  
Objectives: The study objective was to research the role of toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR 4 and its signal pathway in the pathogenesis of primary gout arthritis. Methods: Seventy-two patients with primary gout arthritis were selected as the experimental group and 72 healthy controls were selected as the control group. The real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction method was used for testing. Blood uric acid (UA) level, interleukin (IL) IL-1β level, and TLR4 and TLR2 were observed in the two groups. Results: Compared with the control group, the levels of UA, IL-1β, and TLR4 in the observation group were significantly higher than those in the control group, and there was a statistically significant difference between the two groups (P < 0.05). There was no positive correlation between plasma UA level, IL-1β level, and TLR2 (P > 0.05). There was no correlation between TLR2 and serum UA level and IL-1β level in the control group (P > 0.05). Conclusions: TLR4 and IL-1β signaling acceleration is closely related to gouty arthritis. When the TLR4 signal pathway is activated, the UA salt crystal changes in the patient's body.
  2,334 230 -
Medical image segmentation method based on the improved artificial bee colony algorithm
LF Li, MR Qi
January-June 2019, 3(1):5-8
DOI:10.4103/MTSP.MTSP_2_19  
Objectives: The aim is to study the application of artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm in medical image threshold segmentation. Methods: A new image segmentation method based on the improved ABC and thresholding medical image threshold segmentation method is proposed, which is variable coefficient ABC (VCABC) optimization algorithm, which is used to determine n-1 optimal n level threshold on a given image. The proposed method is compared with the Particle Swarm Optimization fractional image threshold segmentation method and the ABC fractional medical image threshold segmentation method. Results: When considering a variety of conditions, the performance of this method is better than that of other methods. Conclusions: The improved method of combining ABC and fractional medical image threshold segmentation method is effective.
  2,286 225 1
Mutagenesis of cellulose synthase (CesA-Like) Gene in tomato using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat/CAS9-system
Nurul Hidayah Samsulrizal
July-December 2019, 3(2):44-47
DOI:10.4103/MTSP.MTSP_11_19  
Background: During ripening, the changes in texture involved remodelling of cell walls of fruits including tomato and also alterations in tissue water relations caused by modifications in the cuticle. Aims and Objectives: To better understand the relationship between cell wall remodelling and fruit softening, an understanding of cell wall structure is necessary. Materials and Methods: Cellulose synthase gene that consists of cellulose synthase (CesA-like) plays important role in cellulose biosynthesis. However, CesA family genes are yet to be fully characterized in Solanaceae species. Results: In this study, we generated transgenic plants to test the role of CesA like gene in texture changes using tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) as a model system. We used the recently developed clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat/Cas9 DNA editing technology to generate mutations in the target gene. Conclusion: Nevertheless, there was no mutation recovered in the CesA-like gene, and this indicates that this gene product is likely essential for regeneration of plantlets from tissue culture.
  2,229 201 -
Research on medical image segmentation based on fuzzy clustering algorithm
J Li, Y Ning, ZM Yuan, CJ Yang
January-June 2019, 3(1):9-11
DOI:10.4103/MTSP.MTSP_3_19  
Objectives: The aim of the study is to apply the fuzzy clustering algorithm to medical image segmentation technology and analyze the application effect of the algorithm. Methods: In this study, the application of bacterial fuzzy clustering algorithm and bacterial foraging optimization algorithm in tooth image segmentation is analyzed. Among them, bacteria fuzzy clustering algorithm is a research group, whereas bacteria foraging optimization algorithm is a conventional group. Relevant researchers need to compare the separation index, partition coefficient, and partition index of the two algorithms. Results: Compared with the conventional group, the separation index and the partition coefficient of the experimental group were relatively high, and the two groups in the separation index and partition coefficients have a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05); compared with the experimental group, the index value was higher in the conventional group, and there was significant difference between the two groups in the zoning index (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Compared with the traditional bacterial optimization algorithm, the application of the bacterial fuzzy clustering algorithm in tooth image segmentation is more remarkable.
  2,207 207 3
Biosynthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles using ethyl acetate extract of Chaetomium cupreum and their anticancer activity
Nazir Ahmad Wani, Waseem Iqbal Khanday, Sharmila Tirumale
July-December 2020, 4(2):23-30
DOI:10.4103/MTSP.MTSP_6_20  
Background: The biosynthesis of iron oxide nanoparticle (NP) formation was carried out using ethyl acetate extract of fungus Chaetomium cupreum as reducing agents. The C. cupreum contains azaphilones pigments which poses various biological activities. Objectives: The synthesis of iron oxide NP and their anticancer potential was investigated. Materials and Methods: The anticancer activities of biosynthesized iron oxide NP were evaluated using tetrazolium bromide assay, measurement of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and inhibition of tumorsphere formation. Results: In the present study, the X-ray diffraction shows the presence of gamma phase iron oxide NP withe the type of Fe2O3. The anticancer potential of iron oxide NP was investigated against human breast cancer cell line. The anticancer activity of biosynthesized iron oxide NP against MCF-7 was 20.5, 30.5, 41.1, 55.3 67.5, and 75.25 at 50 μg/ml after 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 24 h of treatment, respectively. The results showed that Fe2O3NP induced ROS generation to 68.22% at the concentration of 25 μg/ml and 83.66% at 50 μg/ml as compared to 48.22 in control after 15 h of treatment. The results showed that Fe2O3NP treatment increased depolarization MMP to 8.52% at 25 μg/ml and 10.74% at 50 μg/ml as compared to 6.35% in untreated cells after 24 h. Thus, treatment with Fe2O3NPs showed significant inhibition of MCF-7 tumorsphere formation at higher concentration. Conclusion: The biosynthesized iron oxide NP using ethyl acetate extract of C. cupreum exhibit significant anticancer activity.
  2,146 163 1
Evaluation of anticancer activity of Chaetomium cupreum extracts against human breast adenocarcinoma cell lines
Nazir Ahmad Wani, Waseem Iqbal Khanday, Sharmila Tirumale
July-December 2020, 4(2):31-40
DOI:10.4103/MTSP.MTSP_7_20  
Background: Fungi are microorganisms which produce a wide variety of biologically active secondary metabolites that could be used for medicinal and pharmaceutical purposes. The Chaetomium cupreum is a natural source of different types of intracellular and extracellular pigments which exhibit various biological properties. Objectives: The main objectives of this study were to evaluate the anticancer property of C. cupreum extracts against human breast adenocarcinoma cell lines. Materials and Methods: The anticancer activity of different extracts of C. cupreum on human breast cancer cells was evaluated using MTT tetrazolium bromide assay. The measurement of mitochondrial membrane potential was evaluated using JC-1 fluorescent dye and reactive oxygen species (ROS) by 2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate dye. The partial purification and characterization of compound was done by chromatography and spectrometry methods. Results: It was found that ethyl acetate extract of C. cupreum showed significant cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 cells with IC50-40 and against MDA-DB231 cells with IC50-75 μg/ml concentration. In subfractions of ethyl acetate, the highest cytotoxic effect was shown by methanol subfraction (44.79%), followed by ethyl acetate subfraction (39.79%) and chloroform subfraction (37.07%) at the concentration of 25 μg/ml after 24 h. The anticancer activity of seco-chaetomugilin on MCF-7 cancer cells was 51.56% at the concentration of 25 μg/ml. In results, seco-chaetomugilin treatment increased depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential to 16.45% at the concentration of 5 μg/ml and 32.25% at the concentration of 15 μg/ml as compared to 13.47% in untreated cells after 24 h. The results showed that the treatment of seco-chaetomugilin increased ROS generation to 19.6% at the concentration of 5 μg/ml and 26.2% at the concentration of 15 μg/ml as compared to 14% in untreated cells. Conclusion: These results showed that ethyl acetate extract and seco-chaetomugilin pigment induces mitochondria depolarization and ROS production, which leads to cell death. Thus, these results suggested that that pigment seco-chaetomugilin isolated from C. cupreum should further be studied for its anticancer activity on molecular level.
  2,153 141 2
The study of differentially expressed serum protein in patients with different traditional chinese medicine syndromes of knee osteoarthritis
YB Zhou, ZY Dong, YJ Deng, QC Meng
January-June 2019, 3(1):23-25
DOI:10.4103/MTSP.MTSP_10_19  
Objectives: To study the distribution characteristics of patients with knee osteoarthritis (KOA) of different traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndromes and to reveal the differences from the perspectives of expressions of serum inflammatory indicators. Methods: One hundred and thirty-four patients with KOA treated in our hospital from January 2013 to March 2016 and referring to TCM syndrome types were included in the study and were divided into three types: Yin deficiency in kidney and liver\tendon and vesselstasissyndrome,s pleen and kidney deficiency\ wet injection the osteomere syndrome, kidney Yang deficiency and weak\phlegm stasis syndrome; 24 healthy persons who took physical examination in our hospital were selected as the normal control group. Patients' blood was collected in the morning as the blood samples, and the levels of inflammatory factors (5-TH, interleukin-6 [IL-6], and tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α]) were measured in serum. Results: The most common TCM syndrome of KOAin the clinical trialsis Yin deficiency in kidney and liver\tendon and vesselstasissyndrome, the percents of spleen and kidney deficiency\wet injection the osteomere syndrome and kidney Yang deficiency and weak\phlegm stasissyndrome are near, the former is slightly higher than the latter by 3.97%. The levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in the three groups were significantly higher than those in the normal control group, whereas the 5-TH level was significantly lower in the three groups than that in the normal control group (P < 0.05). The levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in the kidney Yang deficiency and weak\phlegm stasis syndrome group were significantly higher than the next two TCM syndrome groups (P < 0.05), whereas the 5-TH level in the kidney Yang deficiency and weak\phlegm stasis syndrome group was significantly lower than the next two TCM syndrome groups (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Yin deficiency in kidney and liver\tendon and vessel stasis syndrome is the most common TCM syndrome of KOA in the clinical trials. The levels of inflammatory factors (5 TH, IL 6, and TNF α) in serum had a close relationship with KOA. In terms of the perspectives of expressions of serum inflammatory indicators, the most serious TCM syndrome of KOA is kidney Yang deficiency and weak\phlegm stasis syndrome.
  2,094 179 1
Study on the effect of single exercise intervention on students with impaired glucose tolerance
KW Dong, XX Xue
January-June 2019, 3(1):16-18
DOI:10.4103/MTSP.MTSP_8_19  
Objectives: The aim of this study is to study the effect of single exercise intervention on students with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Methods: In this study, 25 patients with low glucose tolerance in a university in JX were selected as the study participants and randomly divided into control group and observation group. In the control group, 12 cases were treated with routine motion intervention, whereas 13 cases in the observation group were treated with single exercise intervention of moderate-intensity level running. The training period was 15 weeks, six times a week, and 2 h a time. Moreover, two groups of IGT students' glycated hemoglobin level, waist circumference, and insulin were observed and recorded. Results: Compared with the control group, the insulin level in the observation group was significantly lower than that in the control group, and the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The level of hemoglobin in the observation group was significantly lower than that of the control group, and there was significant difference between the two groups (P < 0.05). The waist circumference of the observation group was significantly lower than that of the control group. There was a significant difference between the two groups (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Single-phase motion intervention can effectively reverse the decrease of sugar content of college students and has certain application value.
  2,077 188 1
The diagnostic efficacy of urinary vascular endothelial growth factor in early stage 2 diabetic nephropathy
LL Pang
January-June 2019, 3(1):19-22
DOI:10.4103/MTSP.MTSP_9_19  
Objectives: The objective was to analyze the application of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the diagnosis of early type 2 diabetic nephropathy (DN). Methods: Thirty-eight patients with type 2 DN diagnosed and treated from March 2016 to August 2017 were selected as the study group and another 38 healthy controls were selected as the control group. The two groups were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Two groups of VEGF, serum creatinine, and glycosylated hemoglobin were observed and recorded. Results: Compared with the control group, the VEGF was higher in the observation group, and there was statistically significant difference between the two groups (P < 0.05). Compared with the control group, the specificity of serum creatinine and glycosylated hemoglobin was more significant in the observation group, and there was statistically significant difference between the two groups (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The application of urinary VEGF in the early diagnosis of type 2 DN has some clinical diagnostic value.
  2,018 171 1
Knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding Vitamin D deficiency among community pharmacists and prescribing doctors in Khartoum city, Sudan, 2020
Ali Awadallah Saeed, Mohamed Eid, Salman Ahmed, Mostafa Abboud, Braah Sami
July-December 2020, 4(2):41-44
DOI:10.4103/MTSP.MTSP_8_20  
Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble vitamins responsible for intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphate. Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) has reached an epidemic in both developed and developing countries. Literature review showed that population knowledge, attitude, and practice concerning Vitamin D were poor. Prescribing doctors and pharmacist are an important source of health information. Hence, their knowledge and practices about Vitamin D is essential for their roles and needs to be highlighted. Objectives: The aim of this study is to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding Vitamin D among community pharmacists and prescribing doctors in Khartoum City, Sudan, 2020. Materials and Methods: An observational cross-sectional study was carried out from February to April 2020 among 94 community pharmacists and 106 prescribing doctors using a validated electronic delivery self-administered questionnaire in Khartoum locality. Results: About 32.7% and 41.9% from prescribing doctors and pharmacists had poor general knowledge, respectively, regarding VDD, while the significant trend was found regarding the level of knowledge and year of experience (P = 0.022) of all health professionals (pharmacists and doctors). About 39.3% and 44.1% from prescribing doctors and pharmacists, respectively, had poor nutrition knowledge score toward Vitamin D with a significant trend regarding nutrition knowledge score and different gender groups (P = 0.02) of all health professionals in the study. About 49.5% and 47.5% from prescribing doctors and pharmacists, respectively, had poor attitude scores toward Vitamin D with a significant trend regarding nutrition knowledge score and attitude score (P = 0.037) of all health professionals. Conclusion and Recommendations: This survey identified a gap in the general knowledge, nutritional knowledge, and attitude among health-care professionals (prescribing doctors and pharmacists).
  2,045 140 1
Evaluation of In vitro antioxidant potential of active metabolite constituents of different extracts of Chaetomium cupreum-SS02 by spectrophotometric method
Nazir Ahmad Wani, Waseem Iqbal Khanday, Sharmila Tirumale
July-December 2020, 4(2):50-59
DOI:10.4103/MTSP.MTSP_10_20  
Objective: The main objective of the study was to evaluate the antioxidant activities of Chaetomium cupreum extracts. Materials and Methods: The total flavonoid content was determined by using aluminum chloride method, whereas antioxidant activity (AA) was evaluated by ferric reducing antioxidant power assay, potassium ferricyanide reducing power assay, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picyl-hydrazyl method, β-carotene bleaching assay, cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity assay, lipid peroxidation inhibition assay by thiobarbituric acid (TBA)-reactive substance method, and inhibition of hydrogen peroxide-induced erythrocyte hemolysis assay. Results: The ferric reducing AA of C. cupreum extracts at the concentration of 50 μg/mL was higher in ethyl acetate extract (6.11%) followed by chloroform extract (3.96%), n-butanol extract (2.44%), and methanol extract (2.02%) mg RE/g dry weight. The potassium ferricyanide reducing activity of C. cupreum extracts at the concentration of 50 μg/mL was higher in ethyl acetate extract (15.90%) followed by chloroform (9.50%), n-butanol (4.93%), and methanol extract (2.92%). The 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl activity of C. cupreum extracts at 50 μg/mL was higher in ethyl acetate extract (36.13%) followed by n-butanol extract (24.17%), chloroform extract (15.04%), and methanol extract (4.71%). The β-carotene bleaching activity of C. cupreum extracts at 50 μg/mL after 1 h of incubation was higher in ethyl acetate extract at 12.88%, followed by chloroform extract (9.82%), n-butanol extract (5.63%), and methanol extract (3.76%). The cupric ion reducing AA (CUPRAC) of C. cupreum extracts at 50 μg/mL was highest in the methanol extract (18.62%) followed by ethyl acetate extract (9.72%), n-butanol extract (7.18%), and chloroform extract (2.46%) mg ACE/g dry weight. With regard to TBA reactive substance activity of C. cupreum extracts at 50 μg/mL, n-butanol extract showed the highest lipid peroxidation inhibition (55.39%) followed by chloroform extract (50.51%), ethyl acetate extract (46.27%), and methanol extract (43.60%). With regard to the hydrogen peroxide-induced hemolysis inhibition activity of C. cupreum extracts at the concentration of 500 μg/mL, ethyl acetate extract showed the highest inhibition (30.53%) followed by chloroform extract (26.42%) and n-butanol extract (9.16%). Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that C. cupreum extracts poses significant antioxidant potential.
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Assessment of community pharmacist's involvement in health promotion and education activities of patients in Khartoum, 2020
Ali Awadallah Saeed, Naira Saeed, Fatima Mahmoud, Marina Ezzat, Mohamed El Mojtaba, Ola Hamza, Mai Abdallah Humaida
July-December 2020, 4(2):45-49
DOI:10.4103/MTSP.MTSP_9_20  
Introduction: Health promotion enables people to gain better control and improve their health and overall well-being. An important aspect of health promotion is community action and participation through health education which encourages socioeconomic and cultural activities and improves environmental determinants of health. Justifications: Sudan national guidelines for good pharmacy practice in community pharmacy 2016 state that community pharmacists should have a role in health promotion in community, so researches must be done to assess achievement in this issue. Objectives: The objective was to assess the extent of the pharmacists' involvement in counseling patients about health promotion and education topics, their preparation to counsel patients in health promotion and education topics, and their perceived success in changing the patients' health behavior. Materials and Methods: An observational cross-sectional study was carried out from March to April 2020 among community pharmacists in Khartoum locality. Results: A total of 150 community pharmacists who participated in the study showed that the most important purpose of consumers' visits to community pharmacy was related to seeking pharmaceutical advice about drug dosage, indication, availability, and side effects which were ranked first, second, third, and fourth, respectively. In the area of the pharmacists' perceptions on their preparedness to counsel patients on health-related behaviors, the perceived preparedness was highest for counseling on taking drugs as prescribed/directed (mean [standard deviation (SD)]; 4.5 [0.9]) and knowledge about drug contents and side effects (mean [SD]; 4.2 [1.1]). The community pharmacists perceived success in helping patients to change their health-related behaviors. Conclusion: The majority of participants have a positive attitude toward counseling the population on health behaviors and indicated their willingness to learn more about health promotion.
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LETTER TO EDITOR
Biological monograph: Haritaki (Terminalia chebula)
Roopesh Jain, Archana Tiwari
July-December 2020, 4(2):65-67
DOI:10.4103/MTSP.MTSP_5_20  
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Abuse and misuse of tramadol among the youth in hodan district mogadishu somalia
Abdikadir Ahmed Omar, Hassan Mohamed Ahmed
April-June 2021, 5(2):36-41
DOI:10.4103/mtsp.mtsp_5_21  
Objectives: Tramadol is a synthetic (man-made) pain reliever (analgesic). Researchers and doctors do not know the exact mechanism of action of tramadol, but it is similar to morphine. The objective of the study was is to assess the knowledge and contact traces of tramadol in Hodan district Mogadishu Somalia. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was adopted using structured questionnaire as the major instrument for the collection of data- this was both closed and open-ended. Methodology: A sample size of 130 respondents was used through the use of simple random sampling technique. Quantitative data analysis methods were used with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21.0 in the analysis of the data. Results: The study found that majority (70%) of respondents knew about tramadol of which more happened to be males. The study found that participants take higher doses of tramadol. The study found that preponderance (58.5%) of respondents knew people who use tramadol of which majority were their friends and co-workers. It also turned out that (83.1%) of the respondents knew where tramadol is readily available. Conclusions: In determining the main purpose of tramadol as energy booster, (30%) attested sexual ecstasy and performance. In conclusion, the availability of tramadol in our Somali community should be highly regulated since its abuse among the youth is on the ascendency. It is a real issue that should be tackled with concerted effort to curtail this menace most especially in the Hodan district.
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Validation of COVID-19 spread model by early cases from Spain
Isack E Kibona, Jeremiah J Ruhere, Violet G Saria
July-December 2020, 4(2):60-64
DOI:10.4103/MTSP.MTSP_12_20  
This article intends to illustrate the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) model if strict restriction is not enforced. Early COVID-19 cases from Spain have been considered an example. Thus, this article is for the estimation of specific parameter particularly to one of the most hit countries in April 2020. Our essence is the possibility to spot a natural model of COVID-19. The cases between March 1 and 15, 2020 have been taken to validate and estimate the parameter of the model. Parameters were estimated by a nlinfit function from MATLAB developed by Levenberg–Marquardt, and thus, so is the reproduction number (R0). R0was found greater than the unit, which is catastrophic. Cases of COVID-19 between March 1 and 15 have been chosen to validate the model because in this earlier stage of the pandemic, Spain restrictions against the spread were assumed not enough to impede the pace of natural spread to the pandemic. Had it not been the lockdown that followed after the mentioned dates, by April 15, 2020, Spain would have been in a more catastrophic situation by >3,400,000 COVID-19 infection cases far worse from 180,695 cases that happened.
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