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   2021| October-December  | Volume 5 | Issue 4  
    Online since April 20, 2022

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Chemical contents in relation to the antimicrobial efficacies of Solanum spp. sect. petota
Adeyinka A Aladesida, Adeyinka O Adepoju, Bunmi Adesola-Famade, Temitope Olushola Ajiboye, Tolulope A Fagbolu
October-December 2021, 5(4):77-83
Background: Both Solanum lycopersicum and S. Pimpinellifolium possess much nutritional and therapeutic usefulness. Aim: This study is aimed at investigating the phytochemical, chemical and antimicrobial contents of foliar extracts of both plants. Methodology: The analyses were carried out using standard methods; the organic contents of the extracts were determined by GC-MS before the extracts were tested for antibacterial and antifungal potentials using the disc diffusion method. Results: The biochemical analysis revealed the presence of crude fibre, crude fat, crude carbohydrate, moisture content, total ash, dry matter and crude protein. Various mineral elements such as Manganese, Zinc, Copper, Sodium, Potassium, Magnesium, Calcium, Iron and Phosphorus were detected in the extracts, even as GC-MS revealed 6 different organic compounds belonging to two groups of chemicals (ester and alkanol). The methanolic extract of both plants showed significant antibacterial and antifungal activities on some of the test organisms at a dose range of 5 and 25mg/ml. Cardiac glycosides was observed to be the highest constituent of the phytochemicals detected and it has been reported to inhibit sodium and potassium pump which in turn cause an increase in the amount of calcium ions and are thus useful in the treatment of heart failure and cardiac arrhythmia. Conclusion: This study concluded that the leaf extracts of both plants investigated are highly nutritive, containing appreciable amounts of nutrients which are required in human and animal diet. Recommendation: An advocacy for a higher consumption of these tomatoes as well as their use in the formulation of antimicrobial agents and drugs is highly recommended.
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A case study of medicinal plants and their uses by the Sundar Haraicha Nagarpalika community in Morang District, East Nepal
Honey Raj Mandal, Shambhu Katel, Shulov Baidhya, Sujata Kattel, Amrit Katuwal
October-December 2021, 5(4):84-88
Background: Nepal is considered as a staple area for wild as well as local medicinal plants. Traditional botanical medicine is the primary mode of health care for most of the people. Several case studies were conducted across the country but some of them were unexposed. So such studies were conducted in order to reveal the importance of locally available medicinal plant species which leads to the discovery of useful drugs and socio-economic development of the community. Objectives: The main objective of this study is to evaluate the importance of each plant species and reveal the purposes to use of the medicinal plants by the local community. Materials and methods: Data was collected in the Morang district of East Nepal. Informal meetings, group discussion, participants observations and schedule surveys were primary sources of data collection. A total of 60 respondents were questioned through an interview by the semi structured English language questionnaire. Result: A total of 60 respondents were recorded. 37 species of medicinal plants belonging to 30 families and 35 genera were documented. The majority of them were herbs and these herbs were able to cure fever, headache, stomachache, cuts and wounds, snake bite etc. Additionally, 26% of medicinal plants are used to treat ailment in the peoples, 48% for both animals and humans, and 25% for marketing. Conclusion: Through this case study, it leads to discovering high priority medicinal plants. Similarly, high potential for the establishment of crude drugs and socio-economic development.
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Evaluation of herbicidal properties of Mikania (Mikania Micrantha H.B.K) and rain tree (Samanea Saman Jacq Merr) leaf extract
Md Shariful Islam, Muslima Khatun, Md Nizam Uddin, Md Sharifur Rahman, Shah Md Ashraful Islam, Md Khaled Saifullah
October-December 2021, 5(4):89-95
Background: Uses of synthetic herbicides to control weeds have negative impacts on soil health. But botanical herbicides have little or no impacts on soil health in addition to control weeds. Aim and Objectives: The aim of the research is to develop botanical herbicides for controlling selected weeds. A pot experiment has been done to evaluate the herbicidal properties of fresh Mikania micrantha H. B. K and Samanea saman Jacq. Merr. leaf extract on two commonly grown weeds Physalis heterophylla and Chenopodium album. Four weed seedlings were transplanted in each pot and three replications were maintained for pots and twelve for each weed. Eighty percentage methanolic extract (1:1) of M. micrantha and S. saman were applied at 0, 10, and 15 mL per pot after 35 days of transplanting. Materials and Methods: Data were collected for agronomic parameters, chlorophyll contents, weed control efficiency by number and weight, and pH and Electrical conductivity (EC) of postharvest soils. About 92% C. album by number was controlled by application of 10 mL M. micrantha extract and which was 36% by weight. Maximum 58% C. album and P. heterophylla by number and 12%–16% by weight was controlled by application of 15 mL S. saman leaf extract. Chlorophyll contents (a+b) were significantly decreases in treated leaves compared to control as these plant extract causes chlorosis of weed leaves. Results: Hence, number of yellow leaves significantly increases and green leaves decreases in treated leaves. pH (7.08–7.34) and EC (0.62–0.89 dS m-1) of postharvest soil indicated that these values were not significantly change after and before application of herbicidal extract and thus no adverse effect was found on soil environment. Conclusion: Considering the weed control efficiency, it is concluded that M. micrantha leaf extract has high potentiality as botanical herbicide to control both C. album and P. heterophylla.
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